The influence of redeposition on the anthracological records from the Moravian Karst caves (Czech Republic, Central Europe)



Słowa kluczowe:

Pod hradem Cave, Kůlna Cave, Anthracology, 14C dating, Post-depositional processes


The study focuses on some methodological problems associated with the research of cave sites. A large amount of anthracological material came from the context of the layers with archaeological material from the Pod hradem Cave (Moravian Karst, Czech Republic). Some samples were determined as Taxus, which in this context would be among the first evidence of yew in the Middle Pleistocene. However, their dating showed significant secondary redepositions. Similar redepositions of material were repeatedly found in the dating of material from the Kůlna Cave (Moravian Karst, Czech Republic). Here, too, in certain parts of the cave, there was secondary redeposited archaeological material in seemingly intact sediments. Both caves were inhabited – Kůlna Cave from MIS 8 to MIS 2, Pod hradem Cave – from MIS 3e to MIS 2. At the same time, intensive post-sedimentation processes took place in both caves, accompanied by the activities of large carnivores inhabiting these caves alternately with humans. The last important factor influencing stratigraphy was the archaeological excavations at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century.


Alex B.,Valde-Nowak P., Regev L. and Boeretto E. 2017. Late Middle Paleolithic of Southern Poland: Radiocarbon dates from Ciemna and Obłazowa Caves. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 11, 370–380 https://

Batchelor C.R., Branch N.P., Carew T., Elias S.E., Gale R., Lafferty G.E., Matthews I.P., Meddens F., Vaughan-Williams A., Webster L.A. and Young D.S. 2019. Middle- Holocene environmental change and archaeology in coastal wetlands: Further implications for our understanding of the history of Taxus woodland. The Holocene 30, 300–314.

Bevan-Jones R. 2016. The Ancient Yew: A History of Taxus Baccata. Windgather: Press.

Bronk Ramsey C., Higham T., Bowles A. and Hedges R. 2004a. Improvements to the Pretreatment of Bone at Oxford. Radiocarbon 46, 155–163.

Bronk Ramsey C., Higham T. and Leach P. 2004b. Towards High-Precision AMS: Progress and Limitations. Radiocarbon 46, 17–24.

Bronk Ramsey C., Higham T.F.G., Owen D.C., Pike A.W.G. and Hedges R.E.M. 2002. Radiocarbon Dates from the Oxford Ams System: Archaeometry Datelist 31. Archaeometry 44, 1–150.

Carcaillet C. and Thinon M. 1996. Pedoanthracological contribution to the evolution of the upper treeline in the Maurienne Valley (North French Alps): Methodology and preliminary data. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 91, 399–416.

Deforce K. and Bastiaens J. 2007. The Holocene history of Taxus baccata (Yew) in Belgium and neighbouring regions. Belgian Journal of Botany 140, 222–237.

Delhon, C. 2006. Palaeo-ecological reliability of pedo-anthracological assemblages. In Dufraisse, A. (ed.), Charcoal Analysis: New Analytical Tools and Method for Archaeology (= British Archaeological Reports. International Series1483). Oxford : Archaeopress, 9–24.

Feurdean A., Perssoiu A.,Tantau I., Stevens T., Magyari E. K., Onac B. P.,Marković S., Andrič M., Connor S., Farcas S., Gałka M., Gaudeny T. ,Hoek W., Kolaczek P., Kuneš P., Lamentowicz M., Marinova E., Michczyńska D. J., Persoiu I., Płociennik M., Słowiński M., Stancikaite M., Sumegi P., Svensson A., Tamas T., Timar A., Tonkov S., Toth M.,Veski S.,Willis K. J. and Zernitskaya V. 2014. Climate variability and associated vegetation responsethroughout Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) between 60 and 8 ka. Quaternary Sci Rev http://dx.doi. org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2014.06.003.

Heiss A.G. 2000. Anatomy of European and North American Woods—An Interactive Identification Key.

Kot M., Krajcarz M. T., Moskal-del Hoyo M., Gryczewska N., Wojenka M., Pyżewicz K., Sinet-Mathiot V., Diakowski M., Fedorowicz S., Gąsiorowski M., Marciszak A. and Mackiewicz P. 2020. Chronostratigraphy of Jerzmanowician. 2 New data from Koziarnia Cave, Poland. bioRxiv preprint doi: https://doi. org/10.1101/2020.04.29.067967. (accesed 3.11. 2020)

Krajcarz M.T., Krajcarz M., Ginter B., Goslar T. and Wojtal 2018. Towards a Chronology of the Jerzmanowician – A New Series of Radiocarbon Dates from Nietoperzowa Cave (Poland). Archaeometry 60, 383–401. doi: 10.1111/arcm.12311.

Mason S., Hather J. and Hillman G. 1994. Preliminary investigation of the plant macro- remains from Dolni Vestonice II, and its implications for the role of plant foods in Palaeolithic and Mesolithic Europe. Antiquity 68, 48–48.

Musil R.1965. Die Barenhohle Pod hradem. Die Entwicklung der Hohlenbahern im letzten Glacial. Die Erforschung der Höhle Pod hradem 1956–1958 ( = Anthropos 18 .N. S. 10). Brno : Moravske zemske muzeum, 7–92.

Nejman L., Lisa L., Dolakova N., Horaček I., Bajer A.,Novak J., Wright D., Sullivan M., Wood R., Gargett R.G., Pacher M., Sazelova S., Nyvltova Fišakova M., Rohovec J. and Kralik M. 2018. Cave deposits as a sedimentary trap for the Marine Isotope Stage 3 environmental record: Thecase study of Pod Hradem, Czech Republic. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 497, 201–217.

Nejman L. and Wood R. and Wright D. and Lisa L. and Nerudova Z. and Neruda P. and Přichystal A. and Svoboda J. 2017. Hominid visitation of the Moravian Karst during the Middle-Upper Paleolithic transition: New results from Pod Hradem Cave (Czech Republic).Journal of Human Evolution 108, 131–146.

Neruda P. 2016. Čas neandertálců. Moravske zemske muzeum: Brno.

Neruda P. and Nerudova Z. 2014. New radiocarbon data from Micoquian layers of the Kůlna Cave (Czech Republic). Quaternary International 326–327, 157–167.

Neruda P. and Valoch K. 2011. Kdy byla jeskyně Kůlna obyvana? In K. Valoch et al. (ed.), Kůlna. Historie a význam jeskyně (= Acta Speleologica 2). Průhonice: Správa jeskyní České republiky 68–73.

Nerudova Z. and Neruda P. 2014. Chronology of the UpperPalaeolithic sequence in the Kůlna Cave (okr. Blansko/ CZ). Archäologisches Korrespondenzblatt 44, 307–324.

Nerudova Z., Neruda P. and Přichystal A. 2012. A Unique Raw Material from Early Upper Palaeolithic layers in the Pod hradem Cave (Moravian Karst, Czech Republic) – interpretativeproblems. Anthropologie (Brno) 50, 463–474.

Novak J., Svoboda J., Šida P., Prostřednik J., Pokorny P. 2015. A charcoal record of Holocene woodland succession from sandstone rock shelters of North Bohemia (Czech Republic). Quaternary International 366, 25–36.

Opravil E. 1965. Ergebnisse der Holzkohleanalyse aus der Grabung der Hohle Pod hradem. Die Erforschung der Höhle Pod hradem 1956–1958 (= Anthropos 18 .N.S. 10). Brno : Moravske zemske muzeum, 147–149.

Opravil E. 1988. Ergebnisse der Holzkohlenanalyse aus der Kůlna-Hohle. In K. Valoch (ed.), Die Erforschung der Kůlna-Höhle 1961–1976 ( = Anthropos 24. N. S. 16). Brno : Moravske zemske muzeum, 211–214.

Reimer P.J., Baillie M.G.L., Bard E., Bayliss A., Beck J.W., Blackwell P.G., Bronk Ramsey C., Buck C.E., Burr G.S., Edwards R.L., Friedrich M., Grootes P.M., Guilderson T.P., Hajdas I., Heaton T.J., Hogg A.G., Hughen K.A., Kaiser K.F., Kromer B., McCormac F.G., Manning S.W., Reimer R.W., Richards D.A., Southon J.R., Talamo S., Turney C.S.M., van der Plicht J. and Weyhenmeye C.E. 2009. Intcal09 and Marine09 Radiocarbon Age Calibration Curves, 0-50,000 Years Cal Bp. Radiocarbon 51, 1111–1150.

Schweingruber F.H. 1990. Microscopic Wood Anatomy. Birmensdorf: Swiss Federal Institute of Forestry Research. Slavikova-Vesela J. 1950. Reconstruction of the succession of forest trees in Czechoslovakia on the basis of an analysis of charcoals from prehistoric settlements. Studia Botanica Čechoslovaca 11, 198–225.

Talon B. and Carcaillet C. and Thinon M. 1998. Etudes pedoanthracologiques des variations de la limite superieure des arbres au cours de l’Holocene dans les Alpes francaises.

Géographie Physique et Quaternaire 52, 195–208.

Uzquiano P., Allue E., Antolin F., Burjachs F., Picornel L., Pique R. and Zapata L. 2015. All about yew: on the trail of Taxus baccata in southwest Europe by means of integrated palaeobotanical and archaeobotanical studies. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 24, 229–247.

Valoch K. 1965. Die altsteinzeitlichen Begehungen der Hohle Pod hradem. Die Erforschung der Höhle Pod hradem 1956–1958 ( = Anthropos 18. N. S. 10). Brno: Moravske zemske muzeum, 93–106.

Valoch K. 1988. Die Erforschung der Kůlna-Höhle 1961– 1976 ( = Anthropos 24. N. S. 16). Brno: Moravske zemske muzeum.

Valoch K. a kol. 2011. Kůlna. Historie a význam jeskyně. ( =Acta Speleologica 2/2011). Průhonice : Sprava jeskyni Česke republiky.




Jak cytować

Nerudová, Z., & Novák, J. (2020). The influence of redeposition on the anthracological records from the Moravian Karst caves (Czech Republic, Central Europe). Analecta Archaeologica Ressoviensia, 15, 31–43.